Single Copy Level Detection of Virus through Particle Counting on Paper Microfluidics Using Smartphone Based Fluorescence Microscope

Case ID:

University of Arizona inventors have detected norovirus on a microfluidic paper analytic device without using any sample concentration or nucleic acid amplification steps. This technology uses a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope and an image-processing algorithm to isolate the particles aggregated by antibody-antigen binding. This leads to a limit of norovirus detection as low as 1 genome copy/µL in deionized water and 10 genome copies/µL in reclaimed water.

Noroviruses are a group of non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause inflammation of the stomach or intestines. They are human enteric viruses that can be highly infectious upon ingestion of low doses of virions. In principle, norovirus can be detected in water, food, and environmental specimens. However, this current process involves complicated concentration of viruses and/or amplification of the norovirus genome, thus the detection is almost impossible in field settings.



  • Detection of viruses in environmental samples 
  • Detection of COVID-19 



  • Fast and easy to use
  • Portable
  • Low cost
  • Single copy LOD
  • Accessible platform technology 
Patent Information:
Contact For More Information:
Tod McCauley
Assistant Director of Licensing, CALS
The University of Arizona
Lead Inventor(s):
Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Soo Chung
Kelly Reynolds